Apple’s Dream of Appliance Computing is Unobtainable

| Hidden Dimensions

“One ought never to turn one’s back on a threatened danger and try to run away from it. If you do that, you will double the danger. But if you meet it promptly and without flinching, you will reduce the danger by half. Never run away from anything. Never!” — Winston Churchill

When dial-up gave way to always-on broadband, and our computers came to be exposed to the Internet 24x7, a perpetual conflict sprang to life: the direct interests of Apple to tout care-free “appliance computing” versus the reality of technology, evil hackers, and the limits of a modern OS. The Flashback Trojan renews the question: how’s Apple doing? Can the security war be won?

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unsinkable applianceThere is no question that Apple desires to sell computer products, Macs and iDevices, based on the idea that they are safe and easy to use. There is also no question that there is a tension between that desire and the technical realities of Internet life and the limits of OS technology. How we respond to that tension is really more of a litmus test of our own personality and experience rather than a clear cut technical decision.

For years, Apple has taken steady measures to improve the security of its products, exposed as they are to the Internet 24x7. In the early years of Mac OS X, there was the concept of Darwin’s open source nature and security auditing. In the middle of the last decade, it took the form of security architecture and OS design. Lately, it’s taken the form of sandboxing and Apple-signed digital certificates.

This steady escalation of improved security, protection against Black Hats out to make money by compromising our Macs, is not only good in itself, but is also a recognition that the Black Hats also have access to both advanced tools and deep understanding of the target OSes plus a pretty good understanding of human psychology.

Against that backdrop, there is the Apple culture, born of Steve Jobs’s vision, that the Mac must operate as an appliance. He once said, if I remember right, there’s no need for a Maytag user’s group. Washing machines and dryers just work. They’re appliances. (But wait until they get Ethernet addresses.)

On that appliance theme, one of our TMO readers, John Francini, wrote me as follows:

Ordinary computer users shouldn’t have to worry about viruses, trojans and the like in order to use, what is in essence a tool. You don’t have to worry about whether the hammer you pick up to drive a nail, or the microwave that you use to heat leftovers, or even the car you drive every day can be infected by malware.

A computer system is also a tool. Nothing more, nothing less.

The fact that an entire multi-billion dollar industry exists to fight malware shows that the dominant OS vendor has completely failed in its obligation to put out an un-infectable product. The malware industry only exists because of this.

Only tech people—who conveniently forget that the vast majority of the populace is not tech savvy, nor does it ever care to be — think that everyone should be “manning the barricades” of anti-virus products and procedures… Not gonna happen. Deal with it.”

I like the spirit and the dream proposed in that response, but I disagree on practical grounds. It would be like saying that driving your kids to school should be happy and risk free. No need to exercise vigilance and caution on the highway or in the School Zone.

A dream castle

Examining the Dream

Okay, how are we doing? Can we really achieve that dream? The answer to that seems to depend on many factors, most of which are outside Apple’s control.

For example, I suspect it’s almost a mathematical theorem that any sufficiently advanced technology, based on any OS, can in turn compromise that OS. In other words, given the design of any modern OS, it’s impossible to get a permanent upper hand on Black Hats. There will always be vulnerabilities in any OS that’s friendly enough for a home user. (There are variants of secured Linux that are so secure, they’re almost impossible to use.)

As evidence for the theorem, Apple, Microsoft and others have waged this never-ending battle since the dawn of the public Internet, not quite 20 years ago, and have still not obtained a clear-cut victory. For every door that is slammed shut (like port scans) another door is pried open (Java vulnerabilities). There will always be new ones, based on technology as well as human psychological weaknesses.

Given that Apple isn’t going to change its marketing approach, it falls on Apple customers to shake themselves out of their comfortable bliss.

Social Computing

Hea in the sandOne of the mysteries of modern computing life is that Internet users are very interested in sharing information in social networks — Facebook, Google+, Twitter and so on, but they’re reluctant to be social animals when it comes to computer security.

For example, Symantec, Intego and I presume Kaspersky and McAfee maintain data centers where they monitor the Internet and various emergent threats. Once these threats are understood, they can be added to the growing database of signatures. All one needs to do to tap into this huge institutional knowledge base is to buy an inexpensive security app from one of those companies, and it will access it. Every packet that comes into your computer will be inspected and diagnosed. That’s about as social as you can get.

And yet. And yet, the culture of the average Mac user remains that these companies are trying to scare us into buying their modestly priced product because they’ve bought into Apple’s dream. If you think those products are expensive, think again. For example, small business routers that inspect packets at the gateway can cost thousands of dollars with hefty annual licences for intrusion, virus and phishing detection.

On the other hand, the price of admission to the security social network is under a hundred bucks, and many turn their backs on it. I’ll argue that the technology war between Apple and the Black Hats can never be permanently won by Apple, and so social networking, tapping into the security information needed to inspect our traffic is the only way to stay safe. It takes a Borg mind to defeat the Borg, as Captain Picard showed us. You can’t do it alone.

Apple’s Take

If you listen to just Apple, you’ll be told that they’ll take care of you. And yet, recently, it was reported that over 600,000 Macs were infected with the Flashback Trojan because Apple was slow to react. So not only can Apple not permanently get a leg up on the Black Hats, but corporate issues, over and above OS technology, can occasionally leave us vulnerable.

The recognition that Apple has a business to run and products to sell means that Apple will never take the stand that customers need to worry about their products. The Holy Grail that Apple can achieve technological superiority combined with the culture of Apple and its customers that Macs truly are simple, safe, secure appliances means that some careless or indifferent customers will always be compromised. And Apple will always take a black eye for it. It’s still happening in 2012, and it will be never ending.

Summary

A wealth of tools are available to the aggressively conscientiousness Apple customer. Some are easy and social, like the subscription to popular security apps. Some are more geeky, like the expensive proposition of a home router with intrusion detection, packet inspection and e-mail alerts. The fact of the matter, however, is that Apple will never be able to achieve a kind of cold war technological superiority that will allow us to live in comfortable, toaster appliance bliss.

The measures the customer takes, those that are suitable and fathomable, will always be necessary to supplement Apple’s dream. You can have a cell phone and be trained in martial arts, but you wouldn’t chose to walk down a dark alley and be oblivious to your surroundings.

A target

There’s a saying amongst U.S. Navy submariners. “There are only two kinds of ships: submarines and targets.” You will always be a target, but having your own attack submarine as a partner will improve your chances. It’s part of emerging from the shell of Apple-induced bliss. In other words, yes, it’s regrettable, you do have to worry. Until you’re not a target anymore.

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Image Credit: Clouds and battleship (Shutterstock), head in sand: iStockPhoto. Teaser image created with help from Shutterstock. Thanks to Bryan Chaffin.

Comments

geoduck

Perhaps we shouldn’t think of computers as tools. We shouldn’t compare them with hammers, toasters, or cars.How about we treat our computers like they were livestock.

If you own a horse or a dog or some cows you have to be vigilant to make sure they don’t get into a bad area where they can get bitten by pests. You have to be careful as to the quality of feed you give them. You have to keep them immunized against distemper or TB or whatever. Sometimes you even need to cull a sick animal so it doesn’t infect the rest.

Seems to me that a livestock model is more applicable to the computer world than the mechanical tool model.

b9bot

3 days to react, not slow at all. And Apple’s record for security is bar none compared to Windows. Losses by companies in the Billions of dollars do to viruses and malware struck at Windows systems world wide and it still goes on even today.
So let’s not get carried away with the Apple’s bliss piece of untrue crap.
Of course there can always be improvements and Apple releases many security updates all the time.
But it takes far more to get into a Mac running OSX then it does to get into Windows which most of the time will let anything in with it’s wonderful open insecure platform.

John Martellaro

geoduck: I like that analogy.

John Martellaro

b9bot. That’s not quite right. Intego knew of the problem months ago and issued security updates for its software.  Oracle knew of the problem months ago. Apple provided a fix, quickly, only after the news went viral, and only after thousands had been infected in the interim.

vpndev

Probably unobtainable on Mac OS X.

But iPad as an information appliance is much closer to the goal.

Just this past weekend I was helping an elderly family friend with her MacBook Pro. It’s way overkill, as she is one of the least computer-literate people I know. All she needs is a web browser. An iPad with keyboard and mouse would be much better for her (touch interface is not appropriate).

I think iOS is a better way to go for “appliance computing”

David Breitigam

John,

I’m one of those Mac users that refuses to support the malware protection economy. Call me stubborn. 

For example: I don’t think there should be a Tax Preparation economy, and that the government should either provide free tax prep software OR drastically simplify the tax code. Don’t you think if the US was required to develop and provide the top tier TurboTax product for free to every tax payer that they might be incentivized differently around tax code complexity. The IRS is completely responsible.

Likewise I believe that MS and Apple are completely responsible for the security of their operating systems, and Apple must step up and do what MS probably could not do (because of the existing industry and anti-trust concerns) and continue to own the WHOLE platform, including malware protection. ( Yes , MS has their own malware protection product but it is not best in class, and it is not marketed)

As a federal employee (yes we have met) I am utterly appalled by invasive and anti-productive nature of the levels of IT security in place where I am employed. Every computing resource and every Internet connection has slowed to a crawl.  I still want to go home and enjoy a reasonable computing experience. I am still hoping that Apple can wake up and take ownership, because nobody else understands the importance of the user experience like Apple does. And I, like Apple, believe that security is a tradeoff against user experience and i want Apple controlling that equation in the OS. So I choose to continue to take calculated risks with my computers, because once we support the malware aftermarket economy, Apple will never step up and the Mac OSX experience will become a little bit more permanently fragmented.

I refuse to give up. This is on Apple.

Dave B

John Martellaro

David: If sales were not the issue, Apple might do things differently. But they are, and that places constraints on Apple that we don’t have to accept. Hence, what you call the malware protection economy is really our freedom of choice.


http://9to5mac.com/2012/04/17/flashback-malware-still-on-140000-macs-despite-apples-fix/

geoduck

I?m one of those Mac users that refuses to support the malware protection economy.

I can understand your point of view but I gotta ask if you pay for door locks?

the government should either provide free tax prep software OR drastically simplify the tax code.

I like the idea. Unfortunately as with much of the tax code there are vested interests (and big campaign contributions) to keep the tax preparation economy unchanged.

I am utterly appalled by invasive and anti-productive nature of the levels of IT security in place where I am employed.

As an IT professional I’m bothered by this. If you work for a company, a university, or the government the computer and network aren’t yours. You don’t own the files, your desktop or your e-mail account. It is my and other IT professionals job to make sure that the organizations equipment is not used for non work related purposes, for example if the equipment were used to surf, host and serve porn or other offensive or illegal material. I’ve heard of companies being sued for having a hostile work environment because they allowed inappropriate material to be viewed on their computers.  I have to balance your convenience with the organizations legal and liability exposure. If you can’t install something without me coming in and approving it that’s the way it is. This stuff is not for fun, it’s there for a reason.

Do you support the burglary economy by buying locks for your house? Do you support the arson economy buy buying fire insurance? Even if it’s on Apple, a bit of prevention is worth far more to me than the principle. But on the other hand I spend the day fixing broken computers. I don’t want to do that at home too so I figure an ounce of prevention…

geoduck

Call me stubborn.

Not to mention if you install something and it trashes your system you’re going to be sitting around doing nothing, wasting public money while I rebuild it. A little prevention is good insurance.

Lancashire-Witch

“It would be like saying that driving your kids to school should be happy and risk free.”

In spite of all the safety features in a modern car such as reversing cameras, anti-lock brakes, stability control, blind spot monitoring and a host of other safety features it is still possible to drive the car over a cliff with the kids unrestrained in the back seat. Try taking it back to Ford because it’s unsafe on those grounds. A reckless driver killing his family doesn’t mean all modern safety features are useless bits of technology.

Same for the “ordinary user” John Francini refers to. Anyone can get themselves into serious trouble on any computer in no time at all. You don’t even need to pass a test or obtain a licence in order to use one.  But, generally, you’re safer with an Apple Mac; safer still with an Apple iOS device. Which is why I usually advise ordinary users to “Buy Apple”.

I have 2 neighbours who are ordinary users. As of yesterday one had heard about the “apple trojan horse” on the TV News but wasn’t worried because it only affected 600 computers in the USA (See what I have to deal with with!).  Neither of them have ever heard of Java.  Both of them let software update run every week and are very happy with their Apple products for listening to music, looking at photos, email, on-line banking, following the the world news and writing the odd letter.

How on earth are they ever supposed to know they should download a malware removal tool?  How would they ever know they need to?

Apple needs to get up to speed with (trying to) protect the ordinary user before they start to complain in big numbers that - just like a windows pc - they can get themselves in serious trouble very easily.

The rest of us, of course, already know better.

David Breitigam

Geoduck, you are confusing my IT professional experience with the approach and risk I take with my home network. Never the twain shall meet (due to security policy) I am not speaking in my professional capacity. In discussing this point, I am doubting if trade studies are ever performed between useability ( ultimately mission ) and security by those that build and deploy IT solutions. I am making the case that if apple were to take this seriously they could be better at it than a third party and would be properly incentivized to make the right trades. Right now John’s ” head in the sand” illustration is appropriate, but you can’t fight a war from the bottom of a foxhole. Yes, useability of security solutions are getting that bad. If you want to talk productivity ask me how long it takes for my work laptop to boot, or how long it takes and how many steps are involved with accessing a VPN from same laptop while on the road. I could go on and on. I do take precautions on my home network, and at this point must admit that I do own some third party security tech, and that recent Mac outbreaks could not have penetrated, but my approach is very lightweight.

Martin Hill

John, I am surprised you went for the whole of your article without mentioning iOS once.

The iPad, iPhone and iPod touch are as close to appliances as you could ask for. Pick them up, touch an app and you’re doing what you need no fuss, no muss.

The app sandbox, signed code, curated App Store, restriction against side-loading, brain dead simple UI, absence of Java, Flash and macro infection vectors and simple multitasking model all means that AV and tech support are just not needed.

In my estimation Apple has indeed obtained the “unobtainable” - Apple has achieved Appliance Computing - just not with the Mac.

geoduck

Geoduck, you are confusing my IT professional experience with the approach and risk I take with my home network.

That is possible. You hit a raw nerve with that. Over the years I’ve worked with a lot of people that assume they know everything about computers and I’m just keeping them from doing what they want. I fix their computers lot. In my house the rules are a bit more lax, for one thing my wife wouldn’t stand for me having to authorize every e-mail attachment. But on the other hand what she does with her system is much more limited.

The app sandbox, signed code, curated App Store, restriction against side-loading, brain dead simple UI, absence of Java, Flash and macro infection vectors and simple multitasking model all means that AV and tech support are just not needed.

No I just don’t agree. No matter how quickly Apple, and Sophos, and MacAfee and the rest jump on a risk, the bad guys are always a step ahead. The idea that we could harden the system to make it impregnable is a Maginot Line concept that’s doomed to fail. The bad guys will always find a way in. Modern day OSs are so complex that there is always a risk of a vulnerability that nobody thought of. As they taught us in data security training, computers on the internet are always vulnerable. Even if they aren’t on the internet someone could walk up to them, stick in a disk, and copy what they want to steal. If Iran couldn’t keep Stuxnet out what chance does the average user have?

Computers are vulnerable because their usefulness is in direct proportion to how vulnerable they are. Sure you can get rid of flash and all those vectors, use an OS that enforces rigid sandboxing, and all the rest. You won’t be able to do much more than play Solitare but guess what, Your system would still be vulnerable. The only computer that will never need an antivirus program or a call from IT is off. And that kinda defeats the purpose of having a computer.

If there’s money to be made the bad guys will find a way to break in. Sure iOS meets most of what you list for a secure system. I give it a few years before someone finds a way to craft a web page or has an app that passes approval but talks with a server side system that steals data. Actually didn’t we have something like that a couple of months ago where an app was uploading the users whole address book to the company servers without their knowledge?

zewazir

Seems to me that if Apple wants to continue with the appliance model of computing, all they really need do is to incorporate full-on virus protection into the OS.  If a third party application can reach out to parent databases to track and block malware, then surely it is not only possible, but would be highly efficient for Apple to simply write such into OS X.

As I understand it, they have already begun to do so with Lion(?) and Mountain Lion.

Lee Dronick

If Iran couldn?t keep Stuxnet out what chance does the average user have?

From what I understand an agent infected the system via a thumb drive, not over the an internet connection. However, point taken, there is always a way for an enemy to get into a fortress.

wab95

John:

Just a quick, non-technical comment on your piece, while I have a second.

The title of your article could not be more appropriate. Appliance computing is as unobtainable as absolute zero - indeed the latter is likely more achievable, given the complexities and escape clauses of quantum physics. All OS security has going for it is human ingenuity, with its human imperfection-inherited limitations. But for our imperfections permeating every human handiwork, the words “progress”, “improved” and “upgrade” would not be part of our lexicon. Indeed, the arms race-driven evolution of predator and prey in nature demonstrates that every advantage is short-lived and inevitably defeated; which in turn drives the development of progressively more complex and capable systems - like intelligent, rational human beings [NB: That was not an invitation for political commentary].

The mere advent of the Flashback Trojan has ended this as a purely theoretical discussion. One can only protect oneself (or one’s valuables) against known threats. It is the unknown and unforeseen threat to which you will most likely fall victim.

I like geoduck’s analogy with insurance. However safe and secure your car (an appliance) is, however skilful and careful a driver you may be, if you live in the West, you most likely have auto insurance against the unforeseen. There is a saying in Islam, attributed to the Prophet Muhammad: “Trust in God, but tie your camel”. One can render that into computer speak with, “Trust in OS X, but protect your computer from criminal ingenuity”. 

The Navy submariner saying is spot on.

Duty calls.

Martin Hill

@geoduck
“No I just don?t agree. No matter how quickly Apple, and Sophos, and MacAfee and the rest jump on a risk, the bad guys are always a step ahead. The idea that we could harden the system to make it impregnable is a Maginot Line concept that?s doomed to fail.”

Geoduck, I’m not saying that iOS is impregnable. However, I am saying it is good enough for Appliance Computing. Heck there is always the chance your toaster appliance in your kitchen might suffer the odd fusion event, but we don’t write off the toaster appliance space as a result. Heck, it even burns the odd piece of toast heaven forbid.?

I think John and yourself have too extreme a definition of what it is to be an appliance.

In comparison, Android is definitely not an appliance OS. With an installed base of 300 million, Android is already plagued by 13,000 malware apps and exploits with millions of victims as a result of that OS’s “open to everything” philosophy.

In comparison, with an installed base of some 350 million devices owned by a much high earning, bigger spending demographic, iOS still has zero malicious exploits and apps. ?The odd address-book accessing app on iOS just does not compare to the raft of malicious premium SMS texters, root kits, etc Android users suffer from.

Sure iOS *may* eventually have a malware app slip thru App Store curation or a malicious web page exploit, but it has been 5 years and still we have nothing of any substance.

Heck it took well over a decade for the far more open and vulnerable Mac OS X to get anything approaching a serious malware outbreak and yet it is still nothing compared to the Melissa’s and Nimbdas and Code Red outbreaks and 160,000+ viruses, worms, Trojans, rootkits and malware exploits of the Windows platform. ?

I remember when we didn’t dare put an unpatched PC on our university network for a while there as just sitting there it would be compromised in 6 minutes flat.

In terms of tech support, being an ICT manager at a university, I can tell you in no uncertain terms that iOS is definitely a toaster appliance in comparison to Android or Windows or Linux or even Mac OS X in terms of support demands. ?Likewise, as family tech support for several iPhone and iPad-owning aged family members and father of a 3 year old iPad owner, I can confirm that these devices are as close to being a fridge appliance as any computing device could ever dare to be.

Sure we will always have the Chicken Little’s warning the sky will be falling any day now, but it has been 5 years already and the lucrative honeypot that is iOS remains as appliance-like as the day it was released.

Yes I reckon Apple has indeed achieved the unachievable - the Dream of the computer as appliance.

John Martellaro

Gentlemen: the reason I didn’t focus on iOS is because, despite the installed base, it’s not a prime time, full featured OS. Apple had to severely cripple iOS to make it friendly, easy & more secure. Sure it’s closer to an appliance, but it’s also a very limited appliance. However, being derived from OS X, it’s still vulnerable.  It still runs Darwin. It has Safari. It helps solve the problem, but in a very limited way, on a limited platform.

I could not live on iOS alone.  At TMO, we can’t even use mobile Safari to post our articles in the publishing system. iOS isn’t yet poised to replace OS X, if it ever will. If Apple were to forsake OS X completely, I’d have to run Linux to manage my work and computing life and supplement it with an iPad. I don’t think I’m alone in that.

Also, note that iOS devices aren’t yet attractive targets. With few exceptions, iPads don’t have our banking records, passwords, income tax filings, and so on. If, someday, iOS devices assume the leadership in those desktop roles, the motivation to successfully compromise them will escalate exponentially.

So whether Apple inches closer to an appliance by stripping out huge chunks of capability in iOS, knowing that OS X must carry bigger loads, or it brings sandboxing and certificates to a full featured Lion, all in all, a worthy effort to improve security, what wab95 said above still stands.

But for our imperfections permeating every human handiwork, the words ?progress?, ?improved? and ?upgrade? would not be part of our lexicon. Indeed, the arms race-driven evolution of predator and prey in nature demonstrates that every advantage is short-lived and inevitably defeated; which in turn drives the development of progressively more complex and capable systems

And that never ending escalation produces complexity, and the complexity produces weaknesses, and the cycle continues forever. Or at least until some new paradigm changes the whole ball game and the threat disappears.

Lee Dronick

Also, note that iOS devices aren’t yet attractive targets. With few
exceptions, iPads don’t have our banking records, passwords, income tax
filings, and so on.

John I have used my iPad to visit my bank account website. Is that login and password stored anywhere in iOS?

I could not live on iOS alone. At TMO, we can’t even use mobile Safari to post our articles in the publishing system.

Same with me, though I know people who just use their computer for email and to visit websites. Last week I took some video using my iPhone as well as using the mobile version of iMovie to edit it. However, I had to bring the movie into a Mac to put it on a webpage and FTP it to the server.

Martin Hill

John,?
I have a 16 core, 20GB of RAM Mac Pro monster with 4x1TB hardware RAIDed disks with 4 (yes four) big screens and an 8 core (with hyperthreading), 8GB of RAM 17” MacBook Pro on which I do much of my work so you don’t have to convince me of the need many have for a heavy duty OS and hardware to go with it. I manage a 250-recording a day university-based automated lecture recording system and could definitely not do all I need to do on my iPad alone.

However, my mother-in-law and three year old daughter have far simpler needs with email, web browsing, Skype, games and a multitude of apps covering all manner of bases and could indeed get by with just their iPads.?

Heck, a recent study found that a massive 90% of all mobile retail purchases are done on the iPad and iPhone while Android, Windows Phone and RIM are missing in action.

In fact, in my case I find a continually increasing number of my home computing needs are also covered by my iPad and actually that does include online banking, passwords, tax records and filing etc.?

Even many of my work tasks like remotely managing my?30 servers and 120 venue-based video digitizers, note taking in meetings, using our web-based administrative environment and corporate systems as well as email and general web browsing are all comfortably accommodated on my iPad. ?With the many financial, banking and tax apps now out there and the rapidly growing number of other specialized apps, I reckon most home users are already able to see the vast majority of their needs catered to by iOS.

I don’t think this dichotomy disproves Apple’s Appliance Computing philosophy, I think it proves it. ?There will always be people that need or want enormous industrial strength coffee roasters, grinders, cappuccino and coffee machines with more bells, whistles and knobs than everyone else for work or hobby, but most people are very happy with a simple one button coffee making appliance. We also don’t only have just one appliance that does everything, we also have TVs, microwaves, fridges etc.

In a similar way I have an iPhone, an iPad and a TV media station iMac connected to a 50” plasma, that might be replaced in the future with the mythical iOS based Apple TV device as well as my 17” laptop which I now rarely use at home.

I think this is the very definition of Appliance Computing.

I think iOS is indeed Apple’s long-sought answer to the Appliance Computing holy grail and we ignore or discount it at our peril.

geoduck

I have a 16 core, 20GB of RAM Mac Pro monster with 4x1TB hardware RAIDed disks with 4 (yes four) big screens and an 8 core (with hyperthreading), 8GB of RAM 17? MacBook Pro

You have GOT to submit a picture of this to TMO Workspaces
http://www.macobserver.com/tmo/article/tmo_workspaces_dave_hamilton/
smile

Martin Hill

Heh, I’ll see if I can get some time to do so.  Perhaps I’ll include photos of the 28 Apple Xserves (sniff) and 6 Promise e-Trak RAID arrays containing the 180 terabytes of storage our system uses.

We record 24,000 lectures, labs, pracs etc every year which average 2hrs in duration and get 2 million recordings streamed and downloaded annually. 

Incidentally, 53% of all our mobile viewings are from iPads, 37% from iPhones, 5% from iPod touches and only 10% from all Android devices combined.

geoduck

I manage a 250-recording a day university-based automated lecture recording system

My brother works at the UofNM Library system and a big part of what he does is the same thing, recording lectures, teleconferences, distance learning, and such.

Small world

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