At WWDC19, Apple announced iOS 13 NFC with enhanced read/write support. Japan plans to use this so that Japanese iPhone users can access Individual Number Cards from their iPhone (via Ata Distance).
My Number Cards
Individual Number Cards are similar in concept to the United States’ Social Security Number. Various social services, income tax filing, and other public services are gradually being tied to the ID.
Masanori Kusunoki, Japan Digital Design CTO confirmed support for Individual Number Card NFC tag reading with iOS 13 NFC this fall:
The Japanese government will create an app for the cards that will use the new iOS 13 NFC capabilities. Presumably, the cards could also be added to Apple Wallet.